Introduction

The specific benchmark used was a molecular dynamics simulation which involved simulating a calcium aluminosilicate glass consisting of 6500 atoms at room temperature under atmospheric pressure for 25,000 timesteps, or 25ps. The radial cutoff distance was 5.5 Å. All of the data was able to fit into the physical RAM of each system, resulting in no swapping. However, the simulation code used tabulates the potentials and forces rather than recalculating them at each time step, making the performance depend heavily on memory performance (latency and bandwidth) and the cache hierarchy in addition to floating point arithmetic.

All binaries were compiled with optimizations for the platform on which the benchmark was being run, including any special SIMD instruction sets that the compiler could generate on its own. There are differences in the optimizations performed by the compilers, but I've tried to use each compiler's most sensible set of optimization options. To see the exact options I used for each benchmark, in addition to a plethora of other metadata, you can view the raw data used to generate this page in my website's git repository.

Note that some measurements have an "Optimized Time" column. This measurement was made on a version of the application that periodically sorts the atomic positions in memory to increase cache hit rate. Because this optimization was not available at the time I started doing these benchmarks, many of the older systems do not have it.

SPARC Processors

System Processor Clock (MHz)Cache Memory Time (sec)
Sun Ultra 10 UltraSPARC IIi 3602048 KB 512 MB 5829
Sun Enterprise 4500 UltraSPARC II 4004096 KB 2048 MB 5639
Sun Netra T1 UltraSPARC IIi 4402048 KB 1024 MB 5686
Sun Ultra 60 UltraSPARC II 3604096 KB 1024 MB 5561
Sun Ultra 60 UltraSPARC II 4504096 KB 2048 MB 4974
Sun Blade 100 UltraSPARC IIe 500256 KB 512 MB 8634
Sun Fire v100 UltraSPARC IIi 548512 KB 2014 MB 5640
Sun Blade 150 UltraSPARC IIi 550512 KB 512 MB 5249
Sun Blade 150 UltraSPARC IIi 650512 KB 512 MB 5023
Sun Fire v210 UltraSPARC IIIi 100232+64 KB
1024 KB
2014 MB 2053
Sun Blade 1500 (Red) UltraSPARC IIIi 106232+64 KB
1024 KB
1024 MB 1862
Sun Fire v240 UltraSPARC IIIi 150332+64 KB
1024 KB
2048 MB 1558
Sun Blade 1500 (Silver)UltraSPARC IIIi 150332+64 KB
1024 KB
2048 MB 1501
Sun Blade 2500 (Silver)UltraSPARC IIIi 16001024 KB 12288 MB 1428

MIPS Processors

System Processor Clock (MHz)Cache Memory Time (sec)
SGI O2 MIPS R5000 180512 KB 192 MB 25299
SGI O2 MIPS R10000 1951024 KB192 MB 14064
SGI Indigo2MIPS R10000 1951024 KB128 MB 8438
SGI Octane MIPS R10000 2251024 KB384 MB 5744
SGI Fuel MIPS R14000 5002048 KB2048 MB 2507
SGI Fuel MIPS R14000 6004096 KB1024 MB 1787

POWER/PowerPC Processors

System Processor Clock (MHz) Cache Memory Time (sec)
IBM RS/6000 43p 150 PowerPC 604e374 32+32 KB
1024 KB
512 MB 10889
Apple Power Mac G4 PowerPC 7450733 256 KB 1024 MB 7291
Apple Power Mac G4 PowerPC 7450933 2048 KB 1536 MB 4533
Apple Power Mac G5 PowerPC 970 1600 512 KB 1024 MB 2317
IBM Blue Gene/P PowerPC 450 850 32+32 KB
2 KB
8 MB
2048 MB 3030
IBM Blue Gene/P PowerPC 450 4× 850 32+32 KB
2 KB
8 MB
2048 MB 1720
IBM Power 550 ExpressPOWER6 4204 64+64 KB
8 MB
32 MB
15479 MB 646
IBM Power 550 ExpressPOWER6 4× 4204 64+64 KB
8 MB
32 MB
15479 MB 414

PA-RISC Processors

System Processor Clock (MHz)Cache Memory Time (sec)
HP C8000PA-8800 1000768+768 KB
32 MB
4096 MB 801

Itanium Processors

System Processor Clock (MHz) Cache Memory Time (sec) Optimized Time (sec)
HP rx2600Itanium 2 900900 16+16 KB
256 KB
1.5 MB
4096 MB 1294 1212
HP rx2600Itanium 2 9002× 900 16+16 KB
256 KB
1.5 MB
4096 MB 1094 986

ARM Processors

System Processor Clock (MHz) Cache Memory Time (sec)Optimized Time (sec)
Raspberry Pi Model BARM1176JZF-S 700 32+32 KB 512 MB 16459
Terasic DE10-Nano ARM Cortex-A9 800 32+32K
512K
1024 MB 36392501.0
Terasic DE10-Nano ARM Cortex-A9 2× 800 32+32K
512K
1024 MB 32032011.0
Raspberry Pi 3 ARM Cortex-A531200 32+32 KB 1024 MB 25311463.0
Raspberry Pi 3 ARM Cortex-A532× 1200 32+32 KB 1024 MB 24271489.0
Raspberry Pi 3 ARM Cortex-A534× 1200 32+32 KB 1024 MB 25081939.0

x86 Processors

System Processor Clock (MHz) Cache Memory Time (sec)Optimized Time (sec)
Dell Inspiron 8100 Pentium III M 1129 512 KB 256 MB 3680
Tyan MPX S2466 Athlon MP 1900+ 1600 256 KB 1024 MB 3660
Dell OptiPlex GX260 Pentium 4 (Northwood)1793 512 KB 1024 MB 2170
Dell OptiPlex GX260 Pentium 4 (Northwood)2391 512 KB 1024 MB 1661
Gateway E-4650 Pentium 4 (Northwood)2193 512 KB 1024 MB 1743
Dell PowerEdge 2850 Xeon 2.8 (Nocona) 2793 1024 KB 1024 MB 974
- Pentium D 3200 2048 KB 2048 MB 929
Asus Z70va Pentium M 760 2000 2048 KB 1024 MB 731
Sun Fire X4100 Opteron 275 2200 1024 KB 4096 MB 806
Sun Fire X2200 M2 Opteron 2214 2211 2048 KB 4096 MB 873
Sun Fire X2200 M2 Opteron 2376 2300 2048 KB 4096 MB 592
Supermicro Opteron 2216 2400 128+128 KB
1024 KB
4096 MB 713
Supermicro X8DTT Xeon X5560 2800 8192 KB 12 GB 304
Dell Core 2 Duo E6700 2668 4096 KB 2048 MB 439
Dell OptiPlex 760 Core 2 Duo E7500 2926 3072 KB 2048 MB 346
Dell OptiPlex 990 Core i7-2600 3400 32+32 KB
256 KB
8MB
8 GB 201
HP dc7800p Core 2 Duo E8400 2993 6144 KB 3072 MB 318
HP e9180f Core i7 920 2668 8192 KB 12 GB 334
HP ProLiant SL390s G7 Xeon X5672 3200 12 MB 24 GB 310
HP ProLiant DL360 G7 Xeon X5672 3200 12 MB 24 GB 308
- Xeon X5650 2668 12 MB 24 GB 316
- Xeon X5680 3334 12 MB 20 GB 313
- Xeon W5590 3334 8 MB 32 GB 273
Supermicro H8DGT Opteron 6212 2582 1× (64+16 KB)
1× 2 MB
1× 8 MB
N/A 353
- Opteron 6176 2300 64+64 KB
512 KB
6 MB
64 GB 575
Supermicro SC818TQ-1400LPBOpteron 6136 2183 64+64 KB
512 KB
6 MB
64 GB 565483.0
Supermicro SC818TQ-1400LPBOpteron 6136 2× 2183 64+64 KB
512 KB
6 MB
64 GB 477419.0
Supermicro SC818TQ-1400LPBOpteron 6136 4× 2183 64+64 KB
512 KB
6 MB
64 GB 412407.0
Supermicro SC818TQ-1400LPBOpteron 6136 8× 2183 64+64 KB
512 KB
6 MB
64 GB 476470.0
Appro gB222X Xeon E5530 2400 32+32 KB
256 KB
8 MB
49152 MB 416
Appro gB222X Xeon E5530 2× 2400 32+32 KB
256 KB
8 MB
49152 MB 306
Appro gB222X Xeon E5530 4× 2400 32+32 KB
256 KB
8 MB
49152 MB 265
Appro gB222X Xeon E5530 8× 2400 32+32 KB
256 KB
8 MB
49152 MB 256
HP ProLiant SL230s G8 Xeon E5-2660 2989 32+32 KB
256 KB
20 MB
270
HP ProLiant SL230s G8 Xeon E5-2660 2× 2194 32+32 KB
256 KB
20 MB
208
HP ProLiant SL230s G8 Xeon E5-2660 4× 2194 32+32 KB
256 KB
20 MB
171
HP ProLiant SL230s G8 Xeon E5-2660 8× 2194 32+32 KB
256 KB
20 MB
171
HP ProLiant SL230s G8 Xeon E5-2660 16× 2194 32+32 KB
256 KB
20 MB
164
Appro gB512X Xeon E5-2670 2600 32+32 KB
256 KB
20 MB
64 GB 292237.0
Appro gB512X Xeon E5-2670 4× 2600 32+32 KB
256 KB
20 MB
64 GB 175155.0
Appro gB512X Xeon E5-2670 8× 2600 32+32 KB
256 KB
20 MB
64 GB 164141.0
Dell T5600 Xeon E5-2687W 3101 32+32 KB
256 KB
20 MB
32 GB 205
Dell T5600 Xeon E5-2687W 2× 3101 32+32 KB
256 KB
20 MB
32 GB 165
Dell T5600 Xeon E5-2687W 4× 3101 32+32 KB
256 KB
20 MB
32 GB 133
Dell T5600 Xeon E5-2687W 8× 3101 32+32 KB
256 KB
20 MB
32 GB 128
Dell PowerEdge C8220X Xeon Phi SE10P 8× 1095 32+32 KB
512 KB
8 GB 18021209.0
Dell PowerEdge C8220X Xeon Phi SE10P 16× 1095 32+32 KB
512 KB
8 GB 1589
Dell PowerEdge C8220X Xeon Phi SE10P 32× 1095 32+32 KB
512 KB
8 GB 14791106.0
Cray XC30 Xeon E5-2695 v2 2401 32K+32K
256K
30M
64 GB 279225.0
Cray XC30 Xeon E5-2695 v2 2× 2401 32K+32K
256K
30M
64 GB 216173.0
Cray XC30 Xeon E5-2695 v2 4× 2401 32K+32K
256K
30M
64 GB 180163.0
Cray XC30 Xeon E5-2695 v2 6× 2401 32K+32K
256K
30M
64 GB 176154.0
Cray XC30 Xeon E5-2695 v2 12× 2401 32K+32K
256K
30M
64 GB 163149.0
Cray XC30 Xeon E5-2695 v2 12× 2401 32K+32K
256K
30M
64 GB 166153.0
Cray XC40 Xeon E5-2698 v3 2301 32K+32K
256K
40M
128 GB 232178.0
Cray XC40 Xeon E5-2698 v3 2× 2301 32K+32K
256K
40M
128 GB 176137.0
Cray XC40 Xeon E5-2698 v3 4× 2301 32K+32K
256K
40M
128 GB 150130.0
Cray XC40 Xeon E5-2698 v3 8× 2301 32K+32K
256K
40M
128 GB 150132.0
Cray XC40 Xeon E5-2698 v3 16× 2301 32K+32K
256K
40M
128 GB 149136.0
Cray XC40 Xeon E5-2698 v3 32× 2301 32K+32K
256K
40M
128 GB 152143.0
- Xeon E5-2643 v4 6× 3401 32K+32K
256K
20M
128 GB 116102.0
- Xeon E5-2643 v4 3× 3401 32K+32K
256K
20M
128 GB 132110.0
- Xeon E5-2643 v4 2× 3401 32K+32K
256K
20M
128 GB 154122.0
- Xeon E5-2643 v4 1× 3401 32K+32K
256K
20M
128 GB 202160.0
Cray XC40 Xeon Phi 7250 4× 1401 32K+32K
34M
16 GB 1259839.0
Cray XC40 Xeon Phi 7250 8× 1401 32K+32K
34M
16 GB 1009774.0
Cray XC40 Xeon Phi 7250 16× 1401 32K+32K
34M
16 GB 858687.0
Cray XC40 Xeon Phi 7250 32× 1401 32K+32K
34M
16 GB 763667.0
Cray XC40 Xeon Phi 7250 64× 1401 32K+32K
34M
16 GB 725667.0
Cray XC40 Xeon Phi 7250 128× 140132K+32K
34M
16 GB 713674.0
Cray XC40 Xeon Phi 7250 256× 140132K+32K
34M
16 GB 744712.0
Apple iMac 18,3 Core i5-7600K 1× 3800 32K+32K
2×256K
6M
16 GB 189143.0
Apple iMac 18,3 Core i5-7600K 2× 3800 32K+32K
2×256K
6M
16 GB 125107.0
Apple iMac 18,3 Core i5-7600K 4× 3800 32K+32K
2×256K
6M
16 GB 11597.0
Apple MacBookPro 15,2 Core i7-8559U 1× 2700 32K+32K
4×256K
8M
16 GB 147118.0
Apple MacBookPro 15,2 Core i7-8559U 2× 2700 32K+32K
4×256K
8M
16 GB 11798.0
Apple MacBookPro 15,2 Core i7-8559U 3× 2700 32K+32K
4×256K
8M
16 GB 10687.0
Apple MacBookPro 15,2 Core i7-8559U 4× 2700 32K+32K
4×256K
8M
16 GB 9784.0